The Only 5 Things to Think About When You’re Mixing

20percent

It’s easy to get a good mix going if you have a set idea of what you’re trying to accomplish.

Going from one action to another can quickly create a chaotic mixing situation.

You might start out doing levels, then switch to panning and then think about some distortion tips you want to try.

Then all of a sudden you don’t really know where your mix is going.

I like structure when working, so it’s good for me to have some sort of workflow when mixing. If you’ve been following my emails lately you know how the structure goes and you know how I like simplifying things to make the mix go faster.

Going from one thing to another without any real road map isn’t really dangerous or anything like that. Mixing is never “dangerous” but it’ll eat up your time.

Instead of bouncing from one music mixing idea to another, follow these tips here below and you’ll be well on your way to that mix that’s in your head.

I’m a big believer in the Pareto Princple, where 80% of the results come from 20% of the effort.

The 5 things below are the typical 20% of things that will get you really close to your ideal mix.

1. Volume

You can’t have your tracks all over the place.

You can’t have all your tracks at the same volume either.

Balancing the volume of your tracks is the fundamental starting point for every mix. A clear balance is almost half the work, especially if you’ve got great sounding tracks.

You need to keep the elements in the mix at a steady and balanced level, without abnormal level changes popping out all over the place. Pushing up the faders and getting a balanced mix is the first order of business after you’ve recorded and edited your tracks.

EQ and Compression, although extremely important, don’t help at all if your balance is out of whack.

That’s why I usually spend more time getting the exact levels of each track right before I even touch any processing.

Just moving the faders around should get you very close to a rough mix.

Sure, you’ll obviously have to do some additional mixing but if you get the balance right from the start it makes the rest of your mix easier and more fun to do.

Rebalancing

Of course, balancing the faders isn’t a one-and-done thing you do at the start of the mix.

Rebalancing as you add compression, EQ, aux sends and effects is essential to keeping the balance you had before.

All the processors add or subtract gain to your signals so you should take that into consideration as you’re adding your plug-ins to the mix.

But as long as you spend an extra 20 minutes on balancing at the start, you might save yourself some time down the line.

2. Panning

Stereo is important. You don’t want all of your tracks fighting for the center. For instance, panning out the drum-kit is an important way to expand and establish the stereo spectrum.

If you have all sorts of different elements and instruments, you need to find a place for them in the stereo spectrum. Pan everything around until you’ve found a good balance.

Keep in mind that you don’t want to tip the balance of instruments too much to the right or left either.

Instead, try to find a good equilibrium and balance between the left and right speaker.

A good way to do this is actually to keep things in mono and pan that way. You’ll find it easier to create separation in your instruments if you don’t have to listen to your pans in stereo. Counter-intuitive? Maybe. But it works.

Panning in mono gives you a different way of placing the instruments in your mix. Because you’re not really panning in the stereo field anymore since you’ve flipped your mix to mono, but you can definitely hear a difference in the separation of instruments by doing it this way.

3. EQ

EQ is your first mixing tool after leveling and panning.

Equalization is an incredible useful tool for enhancing the sonic colors of your instruments.

Cutting out unwanted frequencies and boosting the fundamental characteristics of instruments is what EQ is all about.

Repair by cutting, and enhance by boosting. EQ is such a comprehensive issue that it’s hard to do it justice as a part of a post like this, but if you’re looking for something new to try out here are six things to do differently the next time you’re faced with some EQ problems:

  1. Use filters and shelving together – Sometimes you don’t want to filter too drastically, but you need to get rid of more lows or highs. Filters and shelving cuts work wonders together.
  2. Use low-pass filters and add a resonant boost – Try it on guitars. Filter the highs all the way down to the high-mids, then add a boost right on the cut-off frequency to make them poke through the mix.
  3. Try to keep your boosts minimal – Subtractive EQ and all that jazz. If you cut more and just raise the volume, you’re essentially boosting the frequencies that are left intact.
  4. Try to use buss EQ first – I love grouping instruments together into busses and EQ’ing them that way. It can mean a lot less work on the individual tracks if all your groups are sitting together in the mix.
  5. Also EQ your effects – If you don’t filter out the low-end of your reverb returns, chances are you’ll end up with a very muddy mix. Always slap an EQ on the reverb or effects channels, or use the built-in EQ if your effects come with them.
  6. Think before you EQ – Think about how many instruments the mix has, then try to divide them into the frequency spectrum before you start EQ’ing. If the bass is the thickness and you’ve DECIDED that try to keep to it. Some instruments should be bright, some should not. If you analytically think of it before EQ’ing you might save yourself some time.

Knowing how to EQ is a crucial thing to know to get great sounding mixes. The biggest problem engineers face is too much low-mid buildup and “muddiness” in their mixes.

That’s why I created your free report: 6 Steps to Fixing Your Muddy Mixes.

Download it here.

4. Compression

Compression is what makes your mix breathe. It can also squash your mix and choke out the naturalness of it. Depending on the genre, instrument and other considerations, the approach to compression varies.

We could decide to completely squash down a room microphone for a punchier drum sound, but we would never compress a beautiful vocal to such an extreme.

For a simple vocal compression trick that tightens up the vocal without really pushing it too hard try using just a low 2:1 ratio with a really low threshold so it’s always compressing a tiny bit.

That compresses the vocal at all times while still allowing it to breathe and be dynamic.

In general, not just for vocals but for any of the tracks, if you want to use compression in a subtle way that doesn’t squash your song, here’s a good way to do it:

Step 1 – Mix the LOUDEST part of the song

You’ve probably read about the importance of getting a great static mix before. Find the loudest part of the song, loop it and go to town on it. 

Mix that part until it makes you cry it’s so good. Use all your compressors and limiters to get that part really really rocking.

Once you’ve got that part of the song sounding really great you can go back to the beginning and mix the rest of the song.

Step 2 – Leave your compressors and limiters ALONE

Mix the rest of the song without touching your compressors or limiters.  If all your hard hitting compression is pumping along nicely during the loudest parts of the song then don’t add more compression in the quieter parts.

This method gives your quiet parts a nice dynamic range while giving your loud parts the punch they need. If you add more compression to the vocal during the calm verse then it’ll sound squashed and overly compressed in the choruses.

Step 3 – Automate, DON’T compress

Don’t think that your instruments need more compression in the verses just because they’re quieter. Just automate the phrases that need a little more volume.

Of course, there are multiple ways to approach compression, this is just the conservative way of doing it. Your particular approach to compression is a big factor in how your mix will end up. If you want more compression tips I highly recommend browsing my curated list of the Top 10 Free Videos on Compression here.

5. Depth

Just like we put instruments from left to right with panning, we need to position elements from front to back. By using effects, like reverb, delay and chorus we create depth in a mix. You can’t distinguish any space in your mix if all the elements are dry and in your face.

You won’t enjoy listening to a two dimensional sound picture as much as a three dimensional mix filled with interesting effects creating depth and diversity in your mix.

Just like some elements deserve to be in the middle of the stereo spectrum, and aren’t panned, there are also some elements that deserve to be dry and up front.

Which elements and what kind of space to use? That’s mainly up to you and your taste. Sometimes it’s also genre specific. For instance, you wouldn’t put massive reverbs on a fast thrash metal song and you probably wouldn’t skimp on the space for a big and slow power ballad.

Reverb and Delay

The two most common effects processors are reverb and delay (thank you Captain Obvious).

Using reverb can get pretty challenging.

Not too much and it’ll sound dry and unpolished.

Too much and it’ll be a cluttered mess.

You can use reverb for contrast between verse and chorus as well as how you can use reverb to create two completely different mixes for the same song.

Reverb Creates the Stage

Reverb creates the stage in which you set your mix. Think of it this way: If you want your song to take place in a big cathedral, then use the big cathedral reverb. If you want a tight studio space, then use the space that sounds like a small studio space. Just make sure you find a good space for your song.

But by all means, don’t use nothing.

Skipping the reverb will result in a two-dimensional and difficult mix unless you’ve carefully recorded everything with a specific room sound. But not many bedroom recordists do that so you need to pick your reverb modes wisely.

Group Your Elements

You can make it easy on your DAW by using groups of similar instruments. If you’ve already mixed your guitars then you can group them together and send them to the same reverb. The same thing can be done with any number of similar sounding elements, such as drums, vocals or synths.

I commonly group together my vocals, my drum and percussion tracks as well as my guitars into three separate groups. By using three short, but different reverbs on each of these groups they all fell into place in their own space while still working together as a whole.

Just like that can you transform your mix from a cluttered two-dimensional shouting match to a nicely separated 3D image.

Reverb Holds Everything Together

Just like compression tends to glue tracks together in the dynamics department, so does reverb in the space department.

So reverb is the answer, most of the time. But if you’re scared of using too much of it, you might want to resort to delay instead.

When Delay is Better

Maybe you want to let go of the reverb for one day, and use a delay instead. Delays are easier to handle, and some are much less confusing than the average reverb.

Sometimes you just need a little depth, without adding reverb, and delay can easily do the job.

So when would you substitute your reverb for a little bit of delay?

For Guitar Solos

Sure, guitar solos can sound awesome with a hefty amount of reverb. But they can sound equally cool with a nice delay.

Use a short to medium stereo delay with one repeat. It’ll add width and depth to your signal immediately. The stereo delay will make the solo sound wider, and the delay will add the depth. And if you have the original signal in the middle, summing to mono won’t ruin the sound.

For Rhythm Guitar

Both reverb and delay can quickly ruin a tight rhythm guitar take. If you use too much of either one, you’ll end up with a cluttered guitar track. However, using a short slap echo or 8th note delay can also add interest. Send your guitar track to a delay via a send, and mix the delayed track underneath just to add a little space. It doesn’t have to clutter the track if you use it sparsely.

For Lead Vocals

For an in-your-face lead vocal, scrap the reverb entirely and use delay to add depth. Delay adds space without pushing the vocal back, something that happens all too often when you use too much reverb. Depending on the BPM of the song, style and genre, use either short, medium or long delays.

If it’s a ballad with long, drawn out words then a long delay creates a big sound without overpowering the actual vocal. A fast rock song benefits from a short, subtle delay and groovy pop songs use medium delays to a great effect.

For Percussion?

Similar problems arise from using too much delay on percussion as it does on rhythm guitar. A short delay timed to the BPM of the song gives percussion punchiness without giving it too much room in the mix.

For Organs

Medium to long delays with a fair amount of feedback can beef up an organ or pad sound. If you have an organ playing long, sustained chords then a long delay can give that foundation a thicker sound.

Now go try these mixing tips out!

Between these five things to think about and a little extra creativity on your part, I’m positive your next mix will be a solid blend of well balanced and panned tracks, correctly carved EQ and steady compression.

Sprinkled with a subtle blend of interesting effects, you might just have created your greatest mix yet.

The best part about following the 80/20 rule is that it shouldn’t really take you long to get a great mix going. Following simple guidelines and a clear plan of action will make you a faster and better mixer.

Step By Step Mixing: How to Create Great Mixes Using Only 5 Plug-ins

In case this is the first article you’ve ever read on Audio Issues let me just say hi!

BjorgvinI’m Björgvin Benediktsson and I run Audio Issues. I’ve written over 1,000 articles on music production since 2008 and taught thousands of home studio musicians how to produce, record and mix their music.

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  • Rasband M

    hi i enjoy your tips and i congratulate you because of your accuracy. i havea quastion : How can i learn to use DEPTH in my mixes ? i undrestand it in professional musics but can not do it . yhanks because of your help. please send me if you can : rasband.m@gmail.com

    • Richard Bruno

      This is great,I’m going to try this out,it pissed me off each time I finished up with a mix after mastering the track I will still hear some hotness like being so harsh ,I love ur article, I hope this will help me a lot!

      • Sean Daily

        heads up. I go to school for music…this article has been flagged for false or misleading information in my mixing classes.

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  • Great article, written in plain terms. Very simple so anyone can understand. Keep up the good work!

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  • Remy

    Thank you for the tips. Good methodology here. It gives a good frame to stay focused.

    However, I would suggest to EQ before making panning decisions, mainly for mono version purpose. What do you think ?

  • I’m with you all the way. Having a kind of predetermined workflow overtime you approach am mix is a great way to be more creative when you do mix. It might sound Counter-intuative but it actually helps. Because you have to spend less time thinking about what to do. You can listen and execute with a better touch.

    I don’t mix that much nowadays, but when I do I tend to do EQ before panning. Apart from that I’ve got almost the same workflow.

  • Gavin Steiner

    What a fantastic article. I’m going to print this out and hang it in the studio.

    I think that in anything we do, it’s important to remind yourself of the basics often. You’ve presented them very well here!

    Thanks for this 🙂

  • Eph Dyla

    You said everything Buddy! Just being with you or watching a video tutorial will top you to Number Uno
    Tutorialer.